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Electrophoretic deposition of chitosan reinforced graphene oxide-hydroxyapatite on the anodized titanium to improve biological and electrochemical characteristics
Nasrin Karimi, Mahshid Kharaziha, Keyvan Raeissi
Chitosan reinforced hydroxyapatite-graphene oxide (CS-GO-HA) nanocomposite coatings were developed using electrophoretic deposition process in order to improve the biological and electrochemical properties of Ti surface. Moreover, the role of anodized layer on the physical and electrochemical properties of the CS-GO-HA nanocomposite coating was evaluated. After synthesize of HA-GO nanopowder using a sol-gel process, nanocomposite coatings with various concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/ml) were produced. Increasing the chitosan content lowered the deposition rate of HA-GO nanoparticles, reduced the coating thickness and diminished apatite-formation ability and biocompatibility. Noticeably, MG63 cell viability significantly reduced form 119.3 ± 5.1 (% control) to 51.9 ± 14.8 (% control), when the chitosan concentration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/ml. In addition, the CS-GO-HA coating containing 0.5 mg/ml chitosan revealed the best barrier property owing to the less crack formation. Furthermore, anodizing of titanium substrate and formation of TiO2 nanotube (TiNT) resulted in the formation of crack-free and homogeneous CS-GO-HA coatings without any observable defect. Moreover, the TiNT formation noticeably improved barrier resistance of the coating (6.7 times) due to better adhesion governed between coating and substrate. Our results confirmed that the surface modification using both anodizing of Ti substrate and electrophoretic deposition of ternary CS-GO-HA nanocomposite coating with 0.5 mg/ml chitosan successfully improves electrochemical properties, bioactivity and cell function, which makes it promising for bone implant applications.