A review on recent advancements in electrochemical biosensing using carbonaceous nanomaterials
Alireza Sanati, Mahsa Jalali, Keyvan Raeissi, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Mahshid Kharaziha, Sahar Sadat Mahshid, Sara Mahshid
This review, with 201 references, describes the recent advancement in the application of carbonaceous nanomaterials as highly conductive platforms in electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensing is described in introduction by classifying biosensors into catalytic-based and affinity-based biosensors and statistically demonstrates the most recent published works in each category. The introduction is followed by sections on electrochemical biosensors configurations and common carbonaceous nanomaterials applied in electrochemical biosensing, including graphene and its derivatives, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous carbon, carbon nanofibers and carbon nanospheres. In the following sections, carbonaceous catalytic-based and affinity-based biosensors are discussed in detail. In the category of catalytic-based biosensors, a comparison between enzymatic biosensors and non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors is carried out. Regarding the affinity-based biosensors, scholarly articles related to biological elements such as antibodies, deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) and aptamers are discussed in separate sections. The last section discusses recent advancements in carbonaceous screen-printed electrodes as a growing field in electrochemical biosensing. Tables are presented that give an overview on the diversity of analytes, type of materials and the sensors performance. Ultimately, general considerations, challenges and future perspectives in this field of science are discussed. Recent findings suggest that interests towards 2D nanostructured electrodes based on graphene and its derivatives are still growing in the field of electrochemical biosensing. That is because of their exceptional electrical conductivity, active surface area and more convenient production methods compared to carbon nanotubes.