Recent advances in chemically-modified and hybrid carrageenan-based platforms for drug delivery, wound healing, and tissue engineering
Mokhtari, H., Tavakoli, S., Safarpour, F., Kharaziha, M., Bakhsheshi-Rad, H.R., Ramakrishna, S. and Berto, F., 2021. Recent advances in chemically-modified and hybrid carrageenan-based platforms for drug delivery, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Polymers, 13(11), p.1744.
Recently, many studies have focused on carrageenan-based hydrogels for biomedical applications thanks to their intrinsic properties, including biodegradability, biocompatibility, resembling native glycosaminoglycans, antioxidants, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and anticoagulant properties. They can easily change to three-dimensional hydrogels using a simple ionic crosslinking process. However, there are some limitations, including the uncontrollable exchange of ions and the formation of a brittle hydrogel, which can be overcome via simple chemical modifications of polymer networks to form chemically crosslinked hydrogels with significant mechanical properties and a controlled degradation rate. Additionally, the incorporation of various types of nanoparticles and polymer networks into carrageenan hydrogels has resulted in the formation of hybrid platforms with significant mechanical, chemical and biological properties, making them suitable biomaterials for drug delivery (DD), tissue engineering (TE), and wound healing applications. Herein, we aim to overview the recent advances in various chemical modification approaches and hybrid carrageenan-based platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.