Nanocomposite hydrogel based on carrageenan-coated starch/cellulose nanofibers as a hemorrhage control material
The aim of this study was to develop a novel Kappa carrageenan (κCA)-coated Starch/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) with adjustable mechanical, physical and biological properties for hemostatic applications. Results indicated that compared to Starch/CNF hydrogel, mechanical strength of κCA-coated Starch/CNF hydrogels significantly enhanced (upon 2 times), depending on the κCA content. Noticeably, the compressive strength of Starch/CNF increased from 15 ± 3 kPa to 27 ± 2 kPa in the 1% wt. κCA coated sample. Furthermore, the surface modification of Starch/CNF hydrogel using κCA reduced swelling ability (upon 2.3 times) and degradation rate (upon 2 times). Hemolysis and clotting tests indicated that while the hybrid hydrogels were blood compatible, they did not significantly change the blood clotting ability of starch matrix. The synergistic effects of Starch/CNF hydrogel and κCA coating provided excellent properties such as superior mechanical properties, adjustable degradation rate and blood clotting ability making κCA-coated Starch/CNF hydrogel a desirable candidate for hemostatic applications.