Nano-Enabled Approaches for Stem Cell-Based Cardiac Tissue Engineering
Cardiac diseases are the most prevalent causes of mortality in the world, putting a major economic burden on global healthcare system. Tissue engineering strategies aim at developing efficient therapeutic approaches to overcome the current challenges in prolonging patients survival upon cardiac diseases. The integration of advanced biomaterials and stem cells has offered enormous promises for regeneration of damaged myocardium. Natural or synthetic biomaterials have been extensively used to deliver cells or bioactive molecules to the site of injury in heart. Additionally, nano-enabled approaches (e.g., nanomaterials, nanofeatured surfaces) have been instrumental in developing suitable scaffolding biomaterials and regulating stem cells microenvironment to achieve functional therapeutic outcomes. This review article explores tissue engineering strategies, which have emphasized on the use of nano-enabled approaches in combination with stem cells for regeneration and repair of injured myocardium upon myocardial infarction (MI). Primarily a wide range of biomaterials, along with different types of stem cells, which have utilized in cardiac tissue engineering will be presented. Then integration of nanomaterials and surface nanotopographies with biomaterials and stem cells for myocardial regeneration will be presented. The advantages and challenges of these approaches will be reviewed and future perspective will be discussed.