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Lignin derivatives-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

Recently, numerous studies have been conducted on renewable polymers derived from different natural sources, exploring their suitability for diverse biomedical applications. Lignin as one of the main components of lignocellulosic has garnered significant attention as a promising alternative to petroleum-based polymers. This interest is primarily due to its cost-effectiveness, biocompatibility, eco-friendly nature, as well as its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. These characteristics could be more beneficial when incorporating lignin into the formulation of value-added products. Although lignin has a chemical structure that is suitable for various applications, these characteristics require modifications to guarantee that the resultant materials display the desired biological, chemical, and physical properties when applied in the creation of biodegradable hydrogels, particularly for biomedical purposes. This study delineates the recent modification approaches that have been employed in the creation of lignin-based hydrogels. These strategies encompass both chemical and physical interactions with other polymers. Additionally, this review encompasses an examination of the current applications of lignin hydrogels, spanning their use as scaffolds for tissue engineering, carriers for pharmaceuticals, materials for wound dressings and biosensors, and elements in flexible and wearable electronics. Finally, we delve into the challenges and constraints associated with these materials, discuss the necessary steps required to attain the appropriate properties for the development of innovative lignin-based hydrogels, and derive conclusions based on the presented findings.
Journal Papers

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