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Cisplatin loaded polycaprolactone–Zeolite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone cancer treatment

Zakeri, N., Rezaie, H.R., Javadpour, J. and Kharaziha, M., 2022. Cisplatin loaded polycaprolactone–Zeolite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone cancer treatment. Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, 7(1), p.100377.
A novel polycaprolactone– zeolite nanocomposite Y (PCL – Zeol) scaffold was fabricated as a carrier for sustained release of cisplatin (Cis) for bone cancer treatment. In this regard, after synthesis of Zeol with a proper morphological uniformity, Cis was loaded with a high loading capacity into the cavities of Zeol nanoparticles. Subsequently, PCL – Zeol scaffolds consisting of various concentrations of Zeol were fabricated via a two-step particulate leaching-freeze-drying approach. The results demonstrated that the scaffolds with high porosity (74–90%) and open-pore diameter in the range of 200–400 μm were developed, depending on the Zeol content. Moreover, incorporation of 20 wt.% Zeol significantly improved the compressive strength (from 0.25 ± 0.07 to 7.5 ± 0.45 MPa), hence making it a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering. The incorporation of 20 wt. % Zeol also promoted the in vitro bioactivity and, at the same time, kept the degradation rate in the appropriate range for bone regeneration (57.4 ± 1.5 gr/month). The PCL – Zeol nanocomposite scaffold could provide a pH-sensitive and sustained release of Cis after 7 days, following an initial burst release. The release rate of Cis from the PCL - Zeol scaffolds noticeably depended on the pH values of the surrounding environment. More specifically, 87.6% ± 4.1 of Cis was released at pH = 5.4 during 28 days of incubation. The MTT assay revealed that while the PCL – Zeol scaffolds promoted the viability of MG63 cells, the release of Cis from PCL – Zeol – Cis scaffold had a cytotoxic effect on the MG63 cells. In summary, PCL – Zeol – Cis scaffolds with significant bioactivity, mechanical properties, and cytotoxic effect on MG63 cells were fabricated with the potential application in the regeneration of bone-cancer-affected tissues. The PCL – Zeol – Cis scaffolds might be useful for effective treatment of bone imperfection derived from surgery owing to bone cancer and might prevent the return of cancer cells.
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