Narges Ahmadi, Mahshid Kharaziha, Sheyda Labbaf
Despite the applicable piezoelectric property of BaTiO3 (BT), its biomedical applications have been limited due to its weak bioactivity and osteoconductivity. To overcome these issues, in the present study, (BaxCa1-x)TiO3 (x = 1, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, and 0) nanopowders were synthesized using a combination of sol-gel and mechanical activation processes. The changes in the chemical, electrical, structural and biological properties of BaTiO3, as a result of the substitution of Ba2+ with Ca+2 ions, were thoroughly studied. Substitution of Ba2+ with Ca2+ in the host (BaxCa1-x)TiO3 lattice changed the cubic structure of pure BT to tetragonal mode. Moreover, 40 at. % Ca2+ substitution in BT nanopowder ((Ba0.6Ca0.4)TiO3) resulted in decreased crystallite and particle size and reduced dielectric constant. In addition, bioactivity of (BaxCa1-x)TiO3 powder enhanced with increasing calcium content. MTT assay showed that 20 at.% Ca2+ substitution in the BT nanopowder resulted in significant increase in MG63 cell proliferation. Overall, calcium-substituted BT nanopowder could be a suitable candidate for bone repair.